Volume 19, Issue 74 (11-2019)                   refahj 2019, 19(74): 97-132 | Back to browse issues page

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lak R, Mohaqeq H, hosseinzadeh S. The Effectiveness of School-based Social Responsibility Training on Attitude toward Juvenile Delinquency among Adolescent Girls. refahj. 2019; 19 (74) :97-132
URL: http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-3243-en.html
Abstract:   (3243 Views)
Extended Abstract
Introduction: Adolescence is a time in which the values having been formed in childhood will have the opportunity to grow and mature. Besides, it is a period when an adolescent who is more susceptible to danger, may make hasty decisions that would probably lead to unfavorable behaviors including delinquency. Thus, the adolescents need to learn and master certain social skills. Social responsibility is a skill that makes the individual obliged and committed regarding the consequences of his/her decision on himself/herself and others. The present study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of social responsibility training on attitude towards juvenile delinquency in adolescents
Method: This is a semi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of the study included all the female secondary high school students within the age range of 15 to 18 years old in Tehran. A sample of 92 students (45 intervention group and 47 control students) was selected from two districts of Tehran. In order to educate social responsibility, a learning protocol was designed which was different but interconnected, and included the followings: social consciousness, responsibility and its types, choices and consequences, respecting the feelings of others- respect for social diversity, rights and responsibilities, solving the problem peacefully and designing models for social responsibility (Table 1). To assess the subjects’ attitude towards the delinquency, Delinquent Behaviors Questionnaire was used. The subjects received social responsibility training for seven sessions of 90 minutes lasting for two months. Then, the post-test was given. To analyze the data, SPSS24 Software and Paired and Independent T-Test, One Way ANOVA and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used.
Findings: The mean age of participants in the study was 16.39 (S.D=0/67) years old. Based on Fisher’s exact tests and Chi-square tests, participants in the intervention and control group did not differ significantly in terms of demographic characteristics such as age, the parents ‘education, the prisoner in the family and the parents’ smoking. Result of Paired and Independent T-Test suggested that in the intervention group, the positive attitude towards delinquency significantly decreased and negative attitudes toward delinquency increased significantly; however, in the control group, significant difference was not observed for any of the dimensions of attitude towards delinquency (Table 2). The findings of Multivariate Analysis Of Variance showed that the pre-test score of positive attitude towards delinquency explains 6% and 22% of the variations of post-test scores of negative and positive attitudes, respectively. In addition, the pre-test score of negative attitude towards delinquency explains about 32% of the post-test variations of negative attitudes (Table 3).
Table (1) A protocol for social responsibility training
Subject of Session    Main Idea    Goals    Activities
Social consciousness    The growth of consciousness of social problems can remind what the individuals and organizations in the society are responsible for.    Students’ perception of social life: Can we live alone?
Understanding our relationship with the community
Understanding the issues and challenges of today’s society
Understanding our role in increasing or reducing social problems    Brainstorming- group discussion

Responsibility and its types    What does personal and social responsibility mean?

    A Review of the previous session
A review of students’ perception of responsibility
Understanding various individual and social responsibilities
Familiarization with the responsibility training program
Understanding the importance of learning responsibility in adolescents    Brainstorming- group discussion- Watching a short movie about social responsibility

Choices and consequences    Making a choice means accepting its consequences.
    Understanding the importance of predicting the consequences of a choice
Understanding the short-term and long-term consequences
Understanding the impact of our choices on our lives and the lives of others    Group discussion - Watching a short video clip
Respect for social variations - Respect for the feelings of others    Understanding differences of individuals helps making better choices and respecting the feelings of others    Understanding a variety of social differences
The importance of respecting differences and diversity in society
The importance of considering the differences and social diversity in our judgments.    Brainstorming- group discussion-
Understanding rights and responsibilities     For every right, there is a responsibility.
    Understanding the concept of rights
Understanding your rights and the rights of others in society
Understanding various social responsibilities (religious, political, environmental, social, economic, cultural)
Understanding the relationship between rights and responsibilities    Brainstorming- group discussion-Role play- In-class activities
Solving problems peacefully    Solving a problem peacefully benefits individuals as well as society.

    A review of the third session: choices and consequences
Students’ understanding of multiple ways to solve a problem
Students’ understanding of peaceful solutions
Understanding the need to choose a peaceful solution    Brainstorming- group discussion-Role play - In-class activities

Designing role models for social responsibility (as a parent, a school principal, policeman or a mayor)    Every society (small or large) has its own rules and values that affect the choices and decisions made by its members.    Students’ understanding of the role of leadership and management
Students’ understanding of the necessity of laws and norms and respecting them
Students’ understanding of adults’ roles    Competition in the form of class work - Student group activities - Brainstorming

Table (2) Mean scores of negative and positive attitude of pre-test and post-test in two groups of intervention and control
Attitude Dimensions    Group    Pre- test    Post-test    Paired samples T Test
        mean    Standard deviation    Mean    Standard deviation    P
Negative attitude    Control    45.07    7.94    44.42    6.49    0.49
    Intervention    47.14    5.52    49.86    6.48    <0.0001
    Independent samples T-Test    p    0.153    <0.0001    
Positive attitude    Control    26.03    5.35    27.29    6.49    0.169
    Intervention    24.72    5.12    22.83    4.84    0.003
    Independent samples T- Test    p    0.227    <0.0001    


Table (3) The results of multivariate analysis of variance on post-test scores of negative and positive attitude
Source    Dependent Variable    Type III Sum of Squares    df    Mean Square    F    Sig.    Partial Eta Squared
District    negative2    1.606    1    1.606    0.078    0.781    0.001
    positive2    12.772    1    12.772    0.638    0.427    0.008
Group    negative2    237.303    1    237.303    11.510    0.001    0.126
    positive2    220.912    1    220.912    11.033    0.001    0.121
Age    negative2    19.777    2    9.889    0.480    0.621    0.012
    positive2    71.341    2    35.671    1.781    0.175    0.043
Education of mother    negative2    17.278    2    8.639    0.419    0.659    0.010
    positive2    33.574    2    16.787    0.838    0.436    0.021
District *age    negative2    52.793    2    26.395    1.280    0.284    0.031
    positive2    102.884    2    51.440    2.569    0.083    0.065
District * Education of mother    negative2    61.551    1    61.551    2.295    0.088    0.036
    positive2    28.832    1    28.832    1.444    0.243    0.018
Negative1    negative2    763.892    1    763.892    37.050    0.000    0.317
    positive2    46.870    1    46.870    2.341    0.130    0.028
Positive1    negative2    110.547    1    110.547    5.362    0.023    0.063
    positive2    456.401    1    456.401    22.793    0.000    0.222

Discussion: The findings of the study showed that social responsibility training could be effective in promoting attitude and social competencies and decreasing adolescents’ tendency to resort to deviant patterns, such as delinquency. In addition, the results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance showed that this training is more effective in younger adolescents.
Ethical Considerations
Authors’ contributions
all authors contributed in producing of the research.
Funding
In the present study, all expenses were borne by the author and he did not have any sponsors.
Conflicts of interest
the authors declared no conflict of interest.
Principles of Research Ethics
In this article, all rights related to research ethics, including obtain informed and written consent from students, their parents or legal guardians to participate in the study, assure students of their confidentiality and provide them with psychological and comfort security. assure students that social responsibility training was free and harmless for them and It can enhance their knowledge. The intervention also has a code of ethics under IR.USWR.REC.1396.192 from the Ethics Committee of the University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences and registration code IRCT20180902040929N1 from the Iranian Clinical Trial Registration Center.
Acknowledgments
We sincerely thank all those who participated in this study, especially the officials and students of Kowsar and Shahid Aval female Secondary high schools in District 16, as well as the Farhang and Velayat schools in District 5.
 
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Type of Study: orginal |
Received: 2018/10/7 | Accepted: 2019/09/29 | Published: 2020/01/18

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