Volume 19, Issue 74 (11-2019)                   refahj 2019, 19(74): 9-46 | Back to browse issues page

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Bakhshipour M, Aghajani Mersa H, Kaldi A, Hosseini S A. Sociological Study of Power Distribution Pattern in Family and Social Class of Women: a Case Study of Married Women in Tehran. refahj. 2019; 19 (74) :9-46
URL: http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2993-en.html
Abstract:   (3223 Views)
Extended Abstract
Introduction: Anthony Giddens in relation to negotiated authority in the family believes that “the development of this kind of democracy has important implications for the promotion of universal democracy.« The family has a high place in social life. Because on the one hand it is the first group we come out of and get to know the world within, and on the other hand, it has the most important impact on the child who is going through his/her early life. Achieving a healthy society depends on the health of the family and the realization of a healthy family, which is subject to the desirable relationships of its members with each other. Therefore, the normalization of relationships in the family will have positive effects on human and social well-being. Of all the institutions and organizations, the family has the most important and valuable roles. An efficient family fosters healthy and grown people and of curse a healthy society. It is safe to say that an ideal family should provide the followings: first, a healthy environment for the well-being of the couple, second, a healthy environment for the upbringing of children. The division of power in the family between husband and wife is associated with the couple’s well-being and good fortune. In today’s societies, the family has undergone many changes, and it is gradually losing its old form and body and evolving in a new way. In this way, the distribution of power in the family has become an important and controversial social issue.
Among all institutions, organizations and institutions, the family plays the most important and valuable role and it is from family that persons move to the world. The family has a prominent place in social life, because on the one hand it is the first group we rise from and get to know the world within, and on the other hand, it has the most crucial impact on the child who is going through early life, and these effects last until the end of life. Second, a healthy society will not be built unless it has healthy families. The present study investigates the relationship between power distribution pattern in family and social class of women for having a healthy family and society.
Method: In the present study, for the purpose of sociological study of social class, family power distribution pattern and evaluation of independent variable effect on family variable, i.e. power distribution pattern in family, survey method and attribution method were used. In the current study, the unit of analysis is the family and the level of observation of the individual. Our statistical population consists of all married women in two different poles of Tehran city, municipal district 1 (northern part of the capital city) and municipal district 19 (southern part of the capital city) of Tehran. According to the latest data from the Iranian Statistical Center in 1396, married women in district 1 of Tehran are 114521 and married women in district 19 of Tehran are 65123; therefore, the statistical population comprises 179644 women. The sampling method is a quotient cluster available. The sample size according to the Cochran formula is 383 for the whole districts of 1 and 19 (244 in district 1 and 139 in district 19). In this study, the validity of the questionnaire was determined by Face Validity and Cronbach’s alpha method was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. The result was 0.83, so the reliability of the questionnaire is acceptable.
Findings: The results show that power distribution in 54% of contemporary families is asymmetric and in 46% of families is symmetrical. Thus, the pattern of power distribution in the contemporary family is asymmetric and undemocratic. According to the results of the present study, the distribution of democratic power is prevalent in 45% of families with low social classes, while in 48% of families with high social classes, symmetric power distribution is prevalent. This research finding confirms that there is a relationship between the pattern of power distribution in the family and the social class of women, and as the social class of women grows, the distribution of power in the family becomes more symmetrical. There is also a relationship between the pattern of power distribution in the family and the ownership of valuable resources by women, and as the ownership of valuable resources increases, the distribution of power in families becomes more symmetrical. There is a relationship between the pattern of power distribution in the family and women’s access to life opportunities as well. As the opportunities for life increase, the distribution of power in families becomes more symmetrical.
Table 1. Frequency of Respondents according to the Concept of Power Distribution in the Family
Variable    district One    Area nineteen    Total
    Frequency    Percent    Frequency    Percent    Frequency    Percent
Asymmetric    125    51.2    83    59.7    208    54.3
Symmetrical    119    48.8    56    40.3    175    45.7
Total    244    100    139    100    383    100

Discussion: According to the results, in district 1, northern part of Tehran, 51% of families have asymmetric power distribution and in 49% of families, power distribution is symmetric. In district 19, southern part of Tehran, 60 percent of families have asymmetric power distribution, and 40% of families have symmetric power distribution. Overall, the results show that power distribution is asymmetric in 56 percent of contemporary households and symmetric in 46 percent of households. Power in the contemporary families requires more equitable distribution. In many contemporary families, decisions are made through coercion and violence. In 84 percent of households that experience asymmetric decision making, decision-making is persuasive, and in 16 percent of households, decision-making is compulsory, and men use coercion and violence in their decision-making. The pattern of division of housework is estimated asymmetric in 86% of contemporary households in Tehran and symmetric in 14% of households. As stated above, it should be said that power in the contemporary families requires a more equitable distribution. The value and normative foundations of society in relation to the distribution of power in the contemporary family and the social class of women in society need to be reconsidered. It is appropriate for managers and community leaders to adopt policies to have healthy families and a healthy society and to empower women in the community as they represent half of the community.
Keywords: Power distribution pattern, Decision making pattern, Social class, Valuable resources, Life opportunities


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All authors have contributed to the paper.
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This article does not overlap with other published works by the authors.
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Received: 2018/01/2 | Accepted: 2019/07/10 | Published: 2020/01/18

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