[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 16, Issue 62 (10-2016) ::
2016, 16(62): 279-322 Back to browse issues page
Social, and psychological treatment of childhood obesity
Nasim Razavi * , Hassan Ahadi , GHolam Reaz Saramiforooshan
Abstract:   (934 Views)

Introduction: The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased in developed and developing countries. Obesity is a metabolic disorder that is related to many diseases and can be caused by one factor or a chain of factors. Moreover, childhood obesity will most probably turn into adult obesity. Various research indicates that obesity is caused by the interaction of genes, psycho-social factors and environmental variables. Regardless of the true belief that obesity is caused by a mixture of factors, health viewpoints merely study individuals. In other words, these viewpoints neglect the structure of society and interest of power groups which make obesity an economic-political phenomenon as well as a genetic, biological, psychological and behavioral phenomenon. Therefore, it should be accepted that genetics is not the only reason for the high prevalence of obesity in developed and developing countries. Other factors such as environmental, behavioral and psycho-social factors play a role as well, specially in the era of globalization.

Critical Review: In reviewing the available treatments for obesity, all unilateral treatments are being challenged. Treatments which only modify nutrition or physical activity are being questioned in terms of efficiency and maintenance of weight loss. Combined treatments for lifestyle modification which take nutrition and physical activity modifications into account, have resulted in efficiency improvement. However, they do not take psychological factors causing and maintaining obesity into account. Review of “cognitive behavioral therapy” points out that, in many studies, this model has been successfully used for losing or maintaining weight. However, applying this model with or without involving parents is a question that affects arrangement of the therapy.

 On the path of change from second to third wave of psychology, obesity treatments had an eye on mindfulness interventions, however, as they are new therapies more research needs to be done to  evaluate them more precisely.          

Discussion: This study tried to investigate childhood obesity issues, its common treatments and their shortages by introducing the internal logic of capitalism and emphasizing on the capitalism lifestyle, excessive food consumption patterns and the development of unhealthy dietary pattern for capital accumulation. It considered social determinants and contemporary environmental changes to challenge environmental and social structure and to emphasize on the need for immediate obesity treatment. It also identified factors affecting the treatment of obesity in children.

Keywords: childhood, health, obesity, psychological interventions
Full-Text [PDF 507 kb]   (874 Downloads)    
Type of Study: orginal |
Received: 2017/01/31 | Accepted: 2017/01/31 | Published: 2017/01/31
References
1. Allison, K. R. , Adlaf, E. M. , Irving, H. M. , Hatch, J. L. , Smith, T. F. , Dwyer, J. J. M. , et al. (2005). Relationship of vigorous physical activity to psychologic distressamong adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 164-166.
2. -American Diabetes Care. (2013). Ecenonmic costs of diabetes in the U. S in 2012. March 6, 2013, doi: 10. 2337/dc12-2625 Diabetes Care March 6, 2013
3. - Anderssen, N. , & Wold, B. (1992). Parental and peer influences on leisure-time physical activity in young adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 63 (4), 341-348.
4. - Anderson, P. M. , Butcher, K. F. (2012), Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes, Pediatr Clin North Am, 59 (3):677-92, ix. doi: 10. 1016/j. pcl. 2012. 03. 021.
5. -Andreyeva, T. , Puhl, R. M. , Brownell, K. D. (2008), Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, 1995-1996 through 2004-2006. Obesity. 16 (5):1129-34. doi: 10. 1038/oby. 2008. 35. Epub 2008 Feb 28.
6. - Atkinson, R. L. , & Nitzke, S. A. (2001). School based programmes on obesity: Increase knowledge about nutrition but do not change eating habits by much. British Medical Journal, 323 (7320), 1018-1019.
7. -Berkowitz, R. I. , & Stunkard, A. J. (2002). Development of childhood obesity. In, T. A. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds. ), Handbook of obesity treatment (pp. 515-531). New York: Guilford Press.
8. -Birch, L. L. , & Fisher, J. O. (2000). Mothers’ child-feeding practices influence daughters’ eating and weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 1054- 1061.
9. -Birch, L. L. , Fisher, J. O. , & Davison, K. K. (2003). Learning to overeat: Maternal use of restrictive feeding practices promotes girls’ eating in the absence of hunger. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 215-220.
10. -Blackburn, G. L. (2002). Weight loss and risk factors. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press.
11. -Blair, S. N. , & Leermakers, E. A. (2002). Exercise and weight management. In T. A. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds. ), Handbook of obesity treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
12. - Bogle V, Sykes C. (2011), Psychological interventions in the treatment of childhood obesity: what we know and need to find out.. J Health Psychol,16 (7):997-1014. doi: 10. 1177/1359105310397626. Epub 2011 Mar 28.
13. - Brannon, L. , Feist J. ( 2007), Health Psychology: An Introduction to Behavior and Health Thomson/ Wadsworth.
14. -Brownell, K. D. (2010). The humbling experience of treating obesity: should we persist or desist? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 717–719.
15. - Brownell, K. D. , & Wadden, T. A. (1992). Etiology and treatment of obesity: Understanding a serious, prevalent, and refractory disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60 (4), 505-517.
16. -Burke, C. A. Mindfulness-Based Approaches with Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Review of Current Research in an Emergent Field 2009. J Child Fam Stud DOI 10. 1007/s10826-009-9282-x
17. - Cooper, Z. , Doll, H. A. , Hawker, D. M. , Byrne, S. , Bonner, G. , Eeley, E. , O’Connor, M. E, Fairburn, C. G. (2010). Testing a new cognitive behavioral treatment for obesity: A randomized controlled trial with three-year follow-up. Behav Res Ther. 2010 Aug; 48 (8): 706–713. doi: 10. 1016/j. brat. 2010. 03. 008, PMCID: PMC2923743. doi:10. 1016/j. brat. 2010. 03. 008,Behaviour Research and Therapy 48 (2010) 706e713
18. -Cooper, Z. , & Fairburn, C. G. (2001). A new cognitive behavioural approach to the treatment of obesity. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 449-511.
19. - Cooper, Z. , Fairburn, C. F. , & Hawker, D. M. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of obesity. A clinician’s guide. New York: Guilford Press.
20. - Crawford JD, Osler DC. (1975), Body composition at menarche. The Frisch- Revelle hypothesis revisited. Pediatrics 1975;56:449-58.
21. - Dalen, J. ,Smith, B. W. , Shelley, B. M. ,LeeSloan, A. , Leahigh, L. , Begay, D. (2010). Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2010) Pilot study :Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL):Weight, eating behavior, and psychological outcomes associated with a mindfulness-based intervention for people with obesity. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. YCTIM-1044; No. ofPages5
22. -Danielsen, Y. S. , Nordhus, I. H. , Júlíusson, P. B. , Mæhled, M. , Pallesen, S. (2013). Effect of a family-based cognitive behavioural intervention on body mass index, self-esteem and symptoms of depression in children with obesity (aged 7—13): A randomised waiting list controlled trial, Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 7, e116—e128
23. - Decaluwe, V. , Braet, C. , & Fairburn, C. G. (2003). Binge eating in obese children and adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33, 78-84.
24. - Dietz, W. H. (2002). Medical complications of obesity in children and adolescents. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press.
25. -Eckel, R. et al. (2011). Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: What Can Be Unified and What Needs to Be Individualized. Care diabetes journal. no. 34 ; p. 1424 (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press.
26. - Epstein, L. H. , Coleman, K. J. , & Myers, M. D. (1996). Exercise in treating obesity in children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28 (4), 428-435.
27. - Epstein, L. H. , & Goldfield, G. S. (1999). Physical activity in the treatment of childhood overweight and obesity: Current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31 (11), s553-559
28. - Falkner, N. , French, S. , Jeffery, R. , Neumark-Sztainer, D. , Sherwood, N. , & Morton, N. (1999). Mistreatment due to weight: prevalence and sources of perceived mistreatment in women and men. Obesity Research, 7 (6), 572-576.
29. -Field, A. E. , Barnoya, J. , & Colditz, G. A. (2002). Epidemiology and health and economic consequences of obesity. In T. A. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds. ), Handbook of obesity treatment (pp. 3-18). New York: Guilford Press.
30. - Fogelholm, M. , Nuutinen, O. , Pasanen, M. , Myohanen, E. , & Saatela, T. (1999). Parentchild relationship of physical activity patterns and obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 23, 1262-1268.
31. - Freedman, D. S. , Dietz, W. H. , Srinivasan, S. R. , & Berenson, G. S. (1999). The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics, 103 (6), 1175-1182.
32. - French, S. A. , Story, M. T. , & Perry, C. L. L. (1995). Self-esteem and obesity in children and adolescents: A literature review. Obesity Research, 3, 479-490.
33. - Friedman, M. A. , & Brownell, K. D. (2002). Psychological consequences of obesity. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press. 55
34. - Friedman, M. A. , Wilfley, D. E. , Pike, K. M. , Striegel-Moore, R. H. , & Rodin, J. (1995). The relationship between weight and psychological functioning among adolescent girls. Obesity Research, 3, 57-62.
35. - Frisch RE. (1984). Body fat, puberty ad fertility. Biol Rev;59:161-88.
36. - Godsey, J. (2013). The role of mindfulness based interventions in the treatment of obesity and eating disorders: an integrative review. Complement Ther Med. 21 (4):430-9. doi: 10. 1016/j. ctim. 2013. 06. 003. Epub 2013 Jul 9.
37. - , Golan M. , Kaufman, V. ,Shahar, D. R. (2006). Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children. British Journal of Nutrition / Volume 95 / Issue 05 / May 2006, pp 1008-1015,Copyright © The Nutrition Society, DOI: http://dx. doi. org/10. 1079/BJN20061757
38. -Goldfield, Gary S. ; Raynor, Hollie A. ; Epstein, Leonard H. Wadden, Thomas A. (Ed); Stunkard, Albert J. (Ed), (2002). Treatment of pediatric obesity, Handbook of obesity treatment. , (pp. 532-555). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, xv, 624 pp.
39. - Goodman, N. , Dornbusch, S. M. , Richardson, S. A. , & Hastorf, A. H. (1963). Variant reactions to physical disability. American Sociological Review, 28, 47-55.
40. -Gortmaker, S. L. , Must, A. , Perrin, J. M. , Sobol, A. M. , & Dietz, W. H. (1993). Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine, 329 (14), 1008-1012.
41. - Griggs, J. J. , Sabel, M. S. ( 2008 ). Obesity and Cancer Treatment: Weighing the Evidence by American Society of Clinical Oncology
42. - Grossman, P. , Niemann, L. , Schmidt, S. , Walach, H. (2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2004 Jul; 57 (1):35-43.
43. - Guzzaloni, G. , Grugni, G. , Minocci, A. , Moro, D. , & Morabitio, F. (2000). Liver steatosis in juvenile obesity: Correlation with lipid profile, hepatic biochemical parameters and glycemic and insulinemic responses to oral glucose tolerance test. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 24, 772- 776.
44. -Hill, J. O. , & Melanson, E. L. (1999). Overview of the determinants of overweight and obesity: Current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31 (11), s515-s521.
45. - Hingle M, Kunkel D. (2006). Childhood obesity and the media. From: The Future of Children, Volume 16,pp. 19-45 | 10. 1353/foc. 2006. 0001
46. -Horgen, K. B. , & Brownell, K. D. (2002). Confronting the toxic environment: Environmental public health actions in a world crisis. In T. A. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds. ), Handbook of obesity treatment (pp. 95-106). New York: Guilford Press.
47. -Jebb, S. A. (2002). Energy intake and body weight. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ).
48. - Jong-wook, L. ( 2005). Public health is a social issue. The Lancet , Volume 365 , Issue 9464 , 1005 – 1006 19 March 2005
49. - Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and preliminary results. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 4 (1):33-47.
50. -Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). “Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. ” Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice 10 (2): 144-156.
51. -Kelishadi, R. ,Azizi-Soleiman, F. (2014). Controlling childhood obesity: A systematic review on strategies and challenges. journal of research in medical sciences. J Res Med Sci. 19 (10): 993–1008. PMCID: PMC4274579
52. - Kendall, P. C. (2000a). Guiding theory for therapy with children and adolescents. In P. C. Kendall (Ed. ), Child and adolescent therapy cognitive behavioral procedures (2nd ed. , pp. 3-27). New York: Guilford Press.
53. -Kendall, P. C. (Ed. ). (2000b). Child and adolescent therapy. Cognitive-behavioral procedures. New York: Guilford Press.
54. - Klesges, R. C. , Haddock, C. K. , Stein, R. J. , Klesges, L. M. , Eck, L. H. , & Hanson, C. L. (1992). Relationship between psychosocial functioning and body fat in preschool children: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60 (5), 793-796.
55. - Lee, Y. S. , Kek, B. L. K. , Poh, L. K. S. , Saw, S. M. , Loke, K. Y. (2008). The association of raised liver transaminases with physical inactivity, increased waist-hip ratio and other metabolic morbidities in severely obese children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;47:172-8.
56. - Lee, Y. S. , Kek, B. L. K. , Poh, L. K. S. , Vaithinathan, R. , Saw, S. M. , Loke, K. Y. (2006) Characterisation of metabolic consequences in severely obese children. In: Paediatric endocrinology: looking into the future: Proceedings of the 4th biennial scientific meeting Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society; 2006 Nov 1-4; Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society:92.
57. - Lillis, J. , Hayes, S. C. , Bunting, K. , Masuda, A. (2009). Teaching acceptance and mindfulness to improve the lives of the obese: a preliminary test of a theoretical model. Ann Behav Med37 (1):58-69. doi: 10. 1007/s12160-009-9083-x. Epub 2009 Feb 28.
58. - Litton JK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Warneke CL, et al: Relationship between obesity and pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy among women with operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:4072-4077, 2008
59. -Maffeis, C. (2000). Aetiology of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. European Journal of Pediatrics, 159 (s1), s35-s44.
60. - Manson, J. E. , Skerrett, P. J. , & Willett, W. C. (2002). Epidemiology of health risks associated with obesity. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds.), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook (2nd ed.). New York:Guilford Press.
61. - Maynard, B. R. , Solis, M. R. , Miller, V. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Improving Academic Achievement, Behavior and Socio-Emotional Functioning of Primary and Secondary Students: A Systematic Review. Campbell collaboration
62. - Moore, L. L. , Lombardi, D. A. , White, M. J. , Campbell, J. L. , Olivera, S. A. , & Ellison, R. C. (1991). Influence of parents’ physical activity levels on activity levels of young children. Journal of Pediatrics, 118, 215-219.
63. - National Health and Medical Research Council. (2003a). Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
64. -National Health and Medical Research Council. (2003b),Clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.
65. - National Institutes of Health. (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Bethesta: National Institutes of Health.
66. - Nemet,D. et. Al. (2005). Short- and Long-Term Beneficial Effects of a Combined Dietary–Behavioral–Physical Activity Intervention for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity,Pediatrics Vol. 115 No. 4. pp. e443 -e449 (doi: 10. 1542/peds. 2004-2172)
67. -Ng, M. , et al. (2013). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. Volume 384, No. 9945, p766–781, 30 August 2014
68. - O’Reilly, G. A. , Cook, L. , Spruijt-Metz, D. , Black, D. S. (2014). Mindfulness-based interventions for obesity-related eating behaviours: a literature review. Obes Rev. 15 (6):453-61. doi: 10. 1111/obr. 12156. Epub 2014 Mar 18.
69. - Phillips, R. G. , & Hill, A. J. (1998). Fat, plain, but not friendless: Self esteem and peer acceptance of obese pre-adolescent girls. International Journal of Obesity, 22, 287-293.
70. - Puhl, R. , & Brownell, K. D. (2002). Stigma, discrimination, and obesity. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press.
71. - Rashidi, A. , Mohammadpour-Ahranjani, B. , Vafa, M. R. , Karandish, M. (2005), Prevalence of obesity in Iran. Obes Rev. 6 (3):191-2.
72. - Redline, S. , Tishler, P. V. , Schluchter, M. , Aylor, J. , Clark, K. , & Graham, G. (1999). Risk factors for sleep-disordered breathing in children. Associations with obesity, race and respiratory problems. American Journal of Critical Care, 159,1527-1532.
73. - Rosen, J. C. (1997). Cognitive-behavioral body image therapy. In D. M. Garner & P. E. Garfinkel (Eds. ), Handbook of treatment for eating disorders (2nd ed. , pp. 188- 201). New York: Guilford Press.
74. - Rosen, J. C. (2002). Obesity and body image. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press.
75. - Sallis, J. F. F. , Patterson, T. L. , McKenzie, T. L. , & Nader, P. R. (1988). Family variables and physical activity in preschool children. J Dev Behav Pediatric, 9, 57-61.
76. - Sarwer, D. B. , & Thompson, J. K. (2002). Obesity and body image disturbance. In T. A. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds. ), Handbook of obesity treatment (pp. 447-464). New York: Guilford Press.
77. - Schwimmer, J. B. , Burwinkle, T. M. , & Varni, J. W. (2003). Health related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289 (14), 1813-1819.
78. - Shaw, K. , O’Rourke, P. , Del Mar, C. , & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No. : CD003818. DOI: 10. 1002/14651858. CD003818. pub2.
79. - Semple, R. J. , Reid, E. F. G. , & Miller, L. (2005). Treating anxiety with mindfulness: An open trial of mindfulness training for anxious children. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 19, 379– 392.
80. - Soeliman,F. A. ,& Azadbakht,L. (2014). Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies. J Res Med Sci. 2014 Mar; 19 (3): 268–275.
81. - Soleimaninanadegani, M. , Shahmohammadi, N. (2013), The Impact of Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy on Anthropometric Indices Balance in High-school Obese Girls’ Students in Iran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84:542 – 548
82. -Sojcher, R. 1. , Gould Fogerite, S. , Perlman, A. (2012). Evidence and potential mechanisms for mindfulness practices and energy psychology for obesity and binge-eating disorder. Explore (NY). 2012 Sep-Oct;8 (5):271-6. doi: 10. 1016/j. explore. 2012. 06. 003.
83. - Sorof, J. , Daniels, S. (2002). Obesity hypertension in children: a problem of epidemic proportions. Hypertension ,40:441-7
84. - Staffieri, J. R. (1967). A study of social stereotypy of body image. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 101.
85. - Stunkard, A. J. , Berkowitz, R. I. , Stallings, V. A. , & Schoeller, D. A. (1999). Energy intake, not energy output, is a determinant of body size in infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69 (3), 524-530.
86. -Swinburn, B. A. , & Egger, G. (2004). The runaway weight gain train: Too many accelerators, not enough brakes. British Medical Journal, 329, 736-739.
87. - Togashi K, Masuda H, Rankinen T, Tanaka S, Bouchard C, Kamiya H. (2002). Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. togashi@edu. mie-u. ac. jp International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity [26 (6):770-777] Type: Journal Article DOI: 10. 1038/sj. ijo. 0801992
88. - Tsiros, M. D. , Sinn, N. , Brennan, L. , Coates, A. M. , Walkley, J. W. , Petkov, J. , Howe, P. R. , Buckley, J. D. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy improves diet and body composition in overweight and obese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr, 87 (5):1134-40.
89. - U. S. Preventive services task force. (2015). Final Research Plan: Obesity and Weight Management in Children and Adolescents: Screening and Interventions. http://www. uspreventiveservicestaskforce. org
90. - Vanhala, M. , Vanhala, P. , Kumpusalo, E. , Halonen, P. , & Takala, J. (1998). Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population based study. British Medical Journal, 317, 319.
91. - Vidal J. (2002). Updated review on the benefits of weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Dec;26 Suppl 4:S25-8.
92. - Vos, R. C. , Huisman, S. D. , Houdijk, E. C. , Pijl, H. , Wit, J. M. (2012). The effect of family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment on health-related quality of life in childhood obesity. Qual Life Res, 21 (9):1587-94. doi: 10. 1007/s11136-011-0079-1. Epub 2011 Dec 8.
93. - Wadden, T. A. , Womble, L. G. , Stunkard, A. J. , & Anderson, D. A. (2002). Psychosocial consequences of obesity and weight loss. In T. A. Wadden & A. J. Stunkard (Eds. ), Handbook of Obesity Treatment (pp. 144-169). New York: Guilford Press.
94. - Whitaker, R. C. , Deeks, C. M. , Baughcum, A. E. , & Specker, B. L. (2000). The relationship of childhood adiposity to parent body mass index and eating behavior. Obesity Research, 8 (3), 234-240.
95. -Whitaker, R. C. , Wright, J. A. , Pepe, M. S. , Seidel, K. D. , & Dietz, W. H. (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 337 (13), 869 -873.
96. - Wing, R. et. Al. (2011). Benefits of Modest Weight Loss in Improving Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes the Look AHEAD Research Group, doi: 10. 2337/dc10-2415 Diabetes Care July 2011 vol. 34 no. 7 1481-1486
97. -Wolf, A. M. (2002). The health economic of obesity and weight loss. In C. G. Fairburn & K. D. Brownell (Eds. ), Eating disorders and obesity. A comprehensive handbook. (2nd ed. ). New York: Guilford Press.
98. -World Health Organisation. (2015). Obesity and overweight, Fact sheet N°311, Updated January 2015
99. - Yabroff, R. K. , Lund, J. , Kepka, D. , Mariotto, A. (2011). Economic Burden of Cancer in the US: Estimates, Projections, and Future Research. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 Oct 1. Published in final edited form as: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Oct; 20 (10): 2006–2014. doi: 10. 1158/1055-9965. EPI-11-0650 PMCID: PMC3191884 NIHMSID: NIHMS319751
100. - Vicennati, V. , Pasqui, F. , Cavazza, C. , Pagotto, U. , Pasquali, R. (2009). Stress-related development of obesity and cortisol in women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Sep; 17 (9):1678-83.
101. - Weiss, E. C. , Galuska, D. A. , Kettel Khan, L. , Gillespie, C. , Serdula, M. K. (2007). Weight regain in U. S. adults who experienced substantial weight loss, 1999-2002. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Jul; 33 (1):34-40.
102. -Zeller, M. H. , Roehrig, H. R. , Modi, A. C. , Daniels, S. R. , Inge, T. H. (2006), Health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in adolescents with extreme obesity presenting for bariatric surgery. Pediatrics; 117:1155-61
Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

Write the security code in the box >


XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Razavi N, Ahadi H, Saramiforooshan G R. Social, and psychological treatment of childhood obesity. Social Welfare. 2016; 16 (62) :279-322
URL: http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2686-en.html


Volume 16, Issue 62 (10-2016) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه رفاه اجتماعی Social Welfare Quarterly
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.07 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 3708