Volume 21, Issue 82 (11-2021)                   refahj 2021, 21(82): 9-29 | Back to browse issues page

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shahraki M, ghaderi S. The Impact of Public Health Expenditures and the Quality of Democracy on Social Welfare in Countries with High Human Development Index. refahj. 2021; 21 (82) :9-29
URL: http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-3884-en.html
Abstract:   (844 Views)
Introduction: Considering the importance of health status in promoting human development indicators and consequently increasing social welfare, as well as the impact of institutional and social factors on social welfare status, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of public health expenditures and the quality of democracy on social welfare in the countries with high human development index.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical and applied study was performed by Panel data with Panel-Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE) estimator for the years 2000-2019 in 2021. The statistical population comprised 39 countries with a high human development index, and the annual time series data were extracted from the databases of the World Bank, the International Country Risk Guide and the United Nations. The models and required tests were estimated in Stata 16 software.
Findings: The mean of human development index for all the sample countries during the period was 0.70 ± 0.04, that of Iran was 0.73 ± 0.04, and the mean of Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index for all the sample countries was 0.58 ± 0.06 and for Iran it was equal to 0.56 ± 0.08. The variables of public health expenditures to GDP, GDP logarithm, openness and democracy index had a positive effect of 0.26, 9.02, 0.08 and 0.17% on the human development index, respectively. Also, the variables of public health expenditures to GDP, Democracy index and the product of public health expenditures to GDP, and democracy index had a positive effect of 0.34, 0.09, and 0.15% on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, respectively.
Discussion: Inequality in human development in Iran was higher than other countries with high human development index and public health expenditures, and the quality of democracy had a positive effect on social welfare.
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Type of Study: orginal |
Received: 2021/05/3 | Accepted: 2021/09/8 | Published: 2021/11/23

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