Volume 19, Issue 72 (8-2019)                   refahj 2019, 19(72): 323-353 | Back to browse issues page

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karoubi M. The Relationship between Fear of Crime and Local Disorder with Loyalty to Destination among Foreign Tourists in the Historical Context of Shiraz. refahj. 2019; 19 (72) :323-353
URL: http://refahj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-3319-en.html
Abstract:   (735 Views)
Expended Abstract
Introduction: In today’s societies, maintaining order and security is an essential point for creat-ing an environment suitable for life. Tourism in today’s world is one of the areas where there is a great deal of interaction with the issue of security and the sense of security and fear of crime because one of the main components of choosing a place to travel as well as the desire to travel to a place is the issue of security in the destination. Traditional and historical textures in cities especially in Shiraz, on the one hand, have the highest historical and cultural value and, on the other hand, are grounds for crime and various types of social damage. Therefore, if a deep and scientific look at these valuable cultural areas and especially the issue of security in these areas, the crime rate will increase day by day, and the potential of these contexts in terms of attracting tourists and strengthening local culture will gradually disappear because if people do not feel secure, the trend of travel, especially the tendency to visit historical sites and traditional textures will decrease dramatically. This study sought to study the safety of foreign tourists in the histor-ical and traditional textures of Shiraz and its relationship with the orientation of tourists to revisit Shiraz and stay in the traditional context.
Method: Data were collection using a questionnaire which were distributed among 380 foreign tourists staying in the historical and cultural context of Shiraz. The reliability of the research in-strument was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha, which was more than 0.7, and the content validi-ty of the instrument was confirmed by experts’ opinions and the validity of the questionnaire structure was verified using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. For data analysis, de-scriptive statistics (mean, frequency tables, etc) and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov Smirnov, Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression) were used at significant level (p≤0.05).
Findings: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between demo-graphic characteristics of age, marriage, education, job, and country of origin with loyalty to the destination (P <0.001). No significant relationship was found between characteristics such as length of stay, gender, and travel groups with loyalty to destination (P≤0.001). The Watson camera test values were obtained for the mass-fearing variable of 1.951 and for the disorder variable of 2.179, which confirms the test with regression. The coefficient of determination ob-tained from the test output showed that the fear of the crime of 0.266 and the disorder of the sites determined 0.461 of the loyalty changes to the destination. Moreover, the histogram showed the mean value of 0.001 and a deviation of 0.99, which confirmed the application of the regression test. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to measure the correlation and prediction of each of the predictor variables. The value of F indicates that the research regres-sion model is a suitable model. In other words, the predictor variables are well-versed in ex-plaining the variations of the criterion. Detection of this subject with the meaning of the F value at an error level smaller than or greater than 0.05. The obtained value of F, 15.278, which is significant at the error level of 0.001, is less than 0.05, indicating that predictor variables, name-ly, fear of crime and neighborhood power provide a good explanation as regards the extent of variation and variance of the dependent variable, namely loyalty to the destination. Regarding correlation coefficients, it should be noted that the standardized regression coefficients (BETA) help to determine the relative contribution of each predictor variable in explaining the variation of the criterion variable. The fear-mass variable, with a beta-value of -0.232, affects loyalty to the destination, but the coefficient is inversely proportional. By increasing fear of crime, loyalty to tourists decreases. This also explains the beta coefficient for the neighborhood variable of -0.205. That is, in relation to the loyalty of foreign tourists or the desire to reside in the historical context of Shiraz, the voluminous suburbs of the neighborhood were more important than fear of crime.
Discussion: The results of the research show no significant relationship between the two varia-bles “travel size and loyalty to destination”. Most foreign tourists entered Shiraz with 44.7% and 168 frequencies in group friendship. The relationship between job variables and loyalty to the destination has also been confirmed. 40% of tourists have occupations other than the category presented in the research. Besides, the link between the country of origin of tourists and the des-tination loyalty was also confirmed. The two countries of France and Italy together accounted for 42.66% of the tourists entering the city of Shiraz. The results indicate that there is a signifi-cant relationship between fear of crime and loyalty to foreign tourists entering the city of Shiraz. That means a one-to-one increase in the amount of fear of crime will decrease the loyalty rate to 132.1 units. Individuals react in a different way to fear of crime, and they may avoid being pre-sent at specific places at specific times, procuring crime prevention equipment, crime groups and/or in order to defend themselves, change their daily routine and lifestyle, or resign from participation in social life. Fear of crime can cause restrictions on domestic and foreign travels of tourists and the desire to resettle in that city. Trust in the place of tourism can be considered as an attitude structure, and trust in the destination of tourism depends on factors that are rele-vant to the location. It can be argued that loyalty to a tourist destination is based on the trust that individuals in relations with that destination are shaped, influenced. Therefore, since fear of crime makes people feel unprotected and their lack of security deprives people of trust, the loss of trust in tourists to the historical context of the city reduces the possibility of their resettlement (decrease of loyalty To destination).
It should be admitted that managers and marketers of the historic destination of the city of Shi-raz should not conceive of the loyalty of tourists to the end of their activities, but the poor secu-rity of the destination and the fear of victimization, can cause even loyal tourists, such as tour-ists unfettered, to refrain from visiting the destination in the future and in fact become non-loyal tourists.
Ethical Considerations
To publish this paper, there is no direct funding from any organization or institution.
Authors’ contributions
This Paper is the result of the author’s research
Conflicts of interest
This Paper is published with other works of the author incompatible content. Although it is tailored to the author’s studies and the research interests of the author, he has no overlap with his other works.
In this Paper, all rights relating to references are cited and resources are carefully listed.
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Type of Study: orginal |
Received: 2019/01/15 | Accepted: 2019/05/20 | Published: 2019/08/17

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